Settler Colonialism Uncovered

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The Battle of Staoueli 19 June 1830 resulted in a route. The French forced the Algerians into a disorganized retreat and advanced toward Algiers. Renowned Algerian historian and novelist, Assia Djebar, describes the battle as follows: "On 18 June the…

The Fort of the Emperor was the last defensive structure guarding the western approach to Algiers. The French breached its walls within five hours of artillery bombardment on 4 July 1830. The Turks guarding the fort blew up what remained of it after…

French army breaches the gates of Algiers 4 July 1830. Hussein Dey capitulates 5 July 1830.

Following the fall of Fort Emperor, the French moved their batteries to its ruins and prepare to bombard the Casbah, "the fortress, the seat of power."…

In North Africa, a fantasia is an exhibition of horsemanship and martial spirit that looks, at first glance, like a synchronized race across a stretch of desert accompanied by shouts and loud cries and concludes with coordinated rifle fire that, if…