Settler Colonialism Uncovered

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In North Africa, a fantasia is an exhibition of horsemanship and martial spirit that looks, at first glance, like a synchronized race across a stretch of desert accompanied by shouts and loud cries and concludes with coordinated rifle fire that, if…

After King Louis XVIII's death in 1824, his younger brother, Charles X, ascended to the throne and reigned 1824-1830.

Newspaper account of the conquest of Algiers

The Fort of the Emperor was the last defensive structure guarding the western approach to Algiers. The French breached its walls within five hours of artillery bombardment on 4 July 1830. The Turks guarding the fort blew up what remained of it after…

French army breaches the gates of Algiers 4 July 1830. Hussein Dey capitulates 5 July 1830.

Following the fall of Fort Emperor, the French moved their batteries to its ruins and prepare to bombard the Casbah, "the fortress, the seat of power."…

The Battle of Staoueli 19 June 1830 resulted in a route. The French forced the Algerians into a disorganized retreat and advanced toward Algiers. Renowned Algerian historian and novelist, Assia Djebar, describes the battle as follows: "On 18 June the…

In 1798, Napoleon I invaded Egypt, and to feed his troops, bought grain from merchants in Algeria, but he never paid them back. In 1814, the next French government ignored the previous regime's debts until, finally, in 1827, the governor of Algiers…

Prior to the first French military campaign to conquer the province of Constantine in 1836, parts of Captain Saint-Hippolyte’s notes about Constantine were incorporated into a military report and sent to the Minister of War on August 30, 1836.…